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Pulau Kukup is a mangrove island located at about 1 km offshore from the mainland town of Kukup Laut, at the South-western region of the state of Johor, and towards North-west of Tanjung Piai, Peninsular Malaysia. It is a small mangrove island (approximately 647.2 ha)   surrounded by mudflats (about 800 ha). The mudflats extend up to a few kilometres on the West and Northwest of the island.

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The mudflats are rapidly accreting on the South west coast of Pulau Kukup while eroding along the South east coast. The interior of the island is not submerged during normal tides, however, the island may be completely submerged during spring tides.

Pulau Kukup is dissected by a few tidal creeks and channels. Six channels/creeks flow through Pulau Kukup: Sungai Ular, Sungai Solok, Sungai Sedang, Sungai Tong Kang, Sungai Merah and Sungai Jempol. Most of the channels are narrow and blind and very picturesque, being fringed by the stilt roots of Rhizophora and breathing roots of Sonneratia spp. and Avicennia spp.

The mangrove island was found to be abundant with fair amount of regenerating young growing mangrove saplings. A total of 30 mangrove tree species and mangrove assosicated species were recorded. The mudflats are rich in benthic organisms. A total of 12 species of vertebrate fauna and 23 species of birds were recorded both in the mangroves and mudflats, with a globally threatened stork, Lesser Adjutant being of primary concern.

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Pulau Kukup was officially gazetted as a State Park under the jurisdiction of the Johor State Park Corporation (Perbadanan Taman Negara, Negeri Johor) on 27 March 1997, to promote preservation of this habitat as well as promoting eco-tourism sector and providing research avenues.

There is currently no human habitation or man made structures on Pulau Kukup. However, the adjacent mainland town of Kukup Laut has distinctland use activities. Kukup Laut is a fishing village which has its seafood restaurants, chalets and floating cages.